There is much more to getting into a graduate program than having a strong transcript. You must demonstrate knowledge of the field and familiarity with clinical situations, as well as good grades in applicable areas. Volunteering time with a practicing Speech Language Pathologist in a school, hospital or private practice will also strengthen your application, and you will develop a professional contact you may need for a letter of recommendation.
Your transcript is not just to list things you've studied in the past — it should convince an admissions committee that you are prepared for and can handle the courses and practica they will provide. Below is our best advice for anyone wanting to get into a graduate school in communication disorders.
We make absolutely no promises about the accuracy of this information. Specifically we make no promises about which U of M courses other universities will accept as equivalent to theirs. The only person responsible for making sure you have the right entrance requirements is you. Check the calendars of the universities you're interested in either on the web or in the Career Resource Centre on the fourth floor of University Centre.
Clinical Linguistics/Neurolinguistics: Bibliography
If in doubt, ask the grad program directly. Here you can find Coursework recommendations These recommendations are based on our best information regarduing the requirements and recommendations from Canadian and select US programs regarding their successful applicants. Prerequisite Courses These courses are required as prerequisites to other courses in the curriculum. If you have a specific graduate school in mind, get the list of courses that that school expects and make sure you take the U of M equivalents for as many of them as possible. The list of recommended courses above is designed to help you fulfill the entrance requirements for a wide range of graduate programs.
Even if you have a specific grad school in mind which has fewer requirements, you want to look as well-prepared for graduate studies as possible. By itself, missing one of the courses that a grad school lists as "suggested" or even "required" won't get you rejected. But it may make a difference when the committee has to choose between you and another applicant with the same GPA and volunteer experience. On the other hand, most admissions committees are at least a little bit flexible.
If you are an absolutely outstanding student who is missing one of their required courses, you may still be accepted. Many graduate programs allow students to enrol in a "pre-masters" year where they can catch up on missing entrance requirements. While most programs are nominally two-year Masters' programs, most schools particularly US schools will have some preparatory coursework they will require before you can 'officially' begin Masters' degree work and see patients in the clinic.
We're finding that students are placed more successfully if they have the equivalent coursework to an undergraduate degree in communication disorders. The courses we offer cover some of that material, but not all of it. It is becoming increasingly common for students to go on to do prepartory work at another school before applying for graduate work. Such 'post-baccalaureate' or 'pre-masters' programs re avalailable at many schools; we commonly hear of students going to UND, Minot, Moorhead, and St Cloud as the nearest options. As well, I owe an expression of thanks to Sara Gesuato for her editing of the first draft of the volume; I also remain grateful to her for the emotional support she offered me during this period.
Clinical Linguistics and Speech Therapy by Christina Daniels on Prezi
To Nadia Radovich and to Alberto Mello, of the printing desk of Palazzo Maldura of the University of Padova, goes my expression of thanks for helping in the formatting of the volume, for their technical support, for sharing their experience with me, and for their kind co-operation generally.
Last but not least, I am grateful to E. His work as editor and his role as moderator in the linguistic sciences cannot be overestimated. He provided invaluable criticism, comments and directions in editing this volume. It has been a great privilege for me to benefit from his unequalled experience.
I also would like to express my gratitude to Anke de Looper of John Benjamins Publishing Company for her patience and kindness. Different levels of linguistic analysis are considered: phonetics, phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Although it is very difficult to do justice to all of the subtleties of argumentation that each of these lines of investigation require, the rather technical issues discussed in this volume have a bearing on questions of considerable interest.
Despite the different approaches and the variety of problems posed in this volume, there is a common aim to the chapters. In this perspective, it is very important to defend the continuity of linguistic speculations beyond different frameworks. The structuralist research, by reconsidering the traditions of this branch of science, has paved the way for the inclusion of language disorders research within linguistic theory. Considerations of the 19th-century discoveries of the French surgeon and anthropologist Paul Broca can be found in Ferdinand de Saussure's work.
We may also refer to some of the key concepts identified and discussed by Saussure himself, such as the methodological and ontological notions of langue and parole, which support and justify a large part of clinical linguistic research. They may be considered part of the implicit or explicit distinctions systematically adopted in any clinical work. Thirty years later, Roman Jakobson's systematic search for what was later described as the 1 See Paul Eling ed.
They deal with general tendencies, considered 'lawful' by Jakobson, whose status is still debated in the most recent literature. The speaker's knowledge of the language must include a set of principles of combinations that determine which combinations are well formed and which are ill-formed and what they mean.
The construction of minimal pair paradigms is one of the major features of experimental design concerning different abstract levels of representations. In their search for rigorous stipulations, linguists, like physicists, biologists or chemists, manipulate the environment experimentally with a central concern on issues of acceptability, as a pretheoretical term, and of grammaticality.
The way Chomsky sets up problems is an inducement to reflection and research not only when there is a convergence of methodological tools and theoretical apparatus, but also with differing and contrasting frameworks. Continuity in linguistic research has been even stronger in the last few decades, as issues on cognitivism and functionalism have been reconsidered, sometimes radically. In this volume issues of appropriateness are discussed and considered as instruments to clarify the nature of such deficits. Moreover, it is an important merit of this volume that it discusses the role of semantic and pragmatic factors not only in the evaluation of deficits, but also in the perspec4 See Ronald W.
Langacker, "Reference-point Constructions", Cognitive Linguistics 4. I: Meanings and representations ed. Another general remark should be made here. In volume contains some currently used terms which may cover empirically and conceptually distinct notions. Here phonological, syntactic and morphological criteria may be in conflict. After this lengthy introductory statement, let me now offer comments on the individual contributions to this volume. As the table of contents indicates, the volume is organised into five sections. The first section considers clinical applications in phonology.
This conflict is even more keenly felt both in language acquisition, 6 Cf. Elisabetta Fava, "Contextualising Corpora in Testing Grammatical Hypotheses: Searching for preposed and postposed syntactic subjects in North Italian and Veneto childadult conversations", Lingua, Discourso, Texto: I Simposio internacional de analisis del discourso, vol. I, ed. Markedness is one of the key concepts of this chapter.
Not often taken into account, however, is the fact that the markedness value of linguistic structures may not be the same at all psycholinguistic levels of processing. What is marked at some linguistic level of representation may well be unmarked at another. The influence of different types of markedness on literal paraphasias may be related to specific psycholinguistic levels of processing and a difference between the pre-phonetic and the phonetic level of processing is hypothesised.
The two papers on stuttering, instead, provide insight into a major area of speech phenomena that have traditionally been treated outside of linguistics proper. As well as other speech disorders demanding an explanation outside of the realm of formal grammar is not too much studied in clinical linguistics. Their results reveal a discrepancy between a fairly good lexical competence and a poor morphological competence heavily dependent on the input, and a similarly poor syntactic competence, which relies fundamentally on pragmatic communication principles.
The not sufficiently mastered morphology, and free rather than bound morphology, is explained on the basis of the process of learning, based mainly on general, not specifically linguistic, cognitive mechanisms. According to EXPLAN, the distinguishing characteristics of stuttering emerge in late childhood; a contrasting view is that people who stutter have incipiently different problems in controlling speech from the onset of language.
Diagnosis of the disorder involves measuring and specifying the types of fluency failures that occur in late adolescence in order to see if they have changed in a way commensurate with adult stuttering. The second paper, The EXPLAN theory of fluency control applied to the treatment of stuttering, Peter Howell poses the question of how speech can be manipulated, that is, how fluent speech can be made to contain fluency failures and how stuttered speech can be changed to make it more fluent.
He proposes a linguistically motivated operant procedure for treating stuttering. A treatment for stuttering is considered successful if it decreases the incidence of fluency failures. In attempts to identify the nature of the linguistic deficit in SLI, diverse linguistic models have been proposed.
suitecrmondemand.com/the-changing-face-of-christianity-africa-the-west.php Although most authorities agree that SLI is heterogeneous, there is little consensus about how it should be classified. They advance different hypotheses on the locus of the deficit in SLI grammar as well as on the nature of developmental patterns followed in SLI, i. First, what is the origin of the problems with finite verbs in three populations, normally developing children, SLI children, and agrammatic aphasics? Second, whether is it true that SLI children deal with the problems of the production of finite verbs in the same way as normal children do?
Although there are clear similarities between normally developing children and SLI children with respect to the production of finite verbs, the SLI children resemble agrammatic aphasics when it comes to strategies in circumventing their problems. According to the authors, the three populations have the same underlying problem, i. The normally developing children have problems with Verb Second position and circumvent these problems by inserting dummy auxiliaries, either from their dialect, or from a construction that in adult grammar has a different meaning.
The results of the Bastiaanse research group do not confirm the hypothesis that language decay is simply the opposite of language learning, as suggested by Jakobson sixty years ago. Agrammatic aphasies have knowledge of their language that young children have not yet acquired.
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Her results show that the performance of SLI children is qualitatively different from that of the control group. Assuming that linguistic development in SLI is an explicit rather than an implicit procedure, she argues that SLI children have problems with purely syntactic operations, such as A-bar movement. Susan M. The data considered reflects differential access to morphology depending in part on the obligatory or optional status of morphemes in the language.
Considerations on the access to core grammar mediated by language-specific organisation and representation of basic concepts are offered. From this theoretical standpoint, Japanese SLI is discussed. In the fourth section, issues of grammar and cognition are discussed. The linguistic and non-linguistic accounts, the interface of grammar and pragmatics in the characterisation of some deficits are reconsidered. After the publication of Jerry Fodor's Modularity of the Mind in , issues of modularity have made a profound impact on linguistic research. One major issue is whether pragmatics should be considered a module of the grammar or not.
WS is a rare genetic disorder, which presents a variety of cardiovascular difficulties, failure to thrive in infancy, etc. In particular, she considers the linguistic knowledge necessary to comprehend and produce coordinated sentences, and the interaction of this knowledge with pragmatic knowledge. She argues that in some cases it is pragmatic, rather than syntactic or semantic knowledge, which is required to complete test items successfully.
Test items may reflect the interaction between the semantics of co-ordinators and the influence of the Grice's pragmatic principle of quantity. An analysis of a failure as a pragmatic failure as opposed to a linguistic failure will affect the direction of a treatment program. In order to assess children's communicative abilities accurately, and 7 On the two opposite claims and their different underlying assumptions, cf.
Asa Kasher. Pragmatics: A reader ed. However, the usefulness of these tests is not denied. Both are outlined from the point of view of one of their proponents, so as to show their premises and weak points in relation to the modularity issue. It is extremely important for clinicians to be aware of the degree of individual variation possible in conditions such as WS and SLI.
The final section is devoted to acquired language problems subsequent to cerebral damage, to be precise non-fluent aphasia, associated with lesions in the frontal part of the left cerebral cortex, and fluent aphasia, associated with lesions in the posterior areas of the left cerebral cortex grammatical structure. In Grammar and fluent aphasia Susan Edwards University of Reading offers some evidence regarding the many frequently spurious generalisations on fluent aphasia. These generalisations are due to the fact that the much of the research is not sufficiently linguistically oriented.
Although these lexical problems are characteristic of all fluent aphasic speakers, lexical deficits cannot account for all the errors found in fluent aphasia. The view that grammar is preserved in fluent aphasia and that any errors observed result from faulty lexical retrieval has gone largely unchallenged, perhaps because the unequivocal lexical errors in fluent aphasia are more obvious, often more 'flamboyant' and more frequent than the subtle, less frequent, grammatical deficits. However, the errors made by the fluent aphasie speakers were of the same kind if not the same magnitude as those made by agrammatic speakers.
The data discussed support the conclusions that, in the same way as non-fluent aphasie patients, fluent aphasies have faulty access to their grammar. Gavarro points out that asymmetries may arise between production and comprehension. Grammaticality judgments in agrammatic subjects are not central to the thesis she defends. Verbs play an important role in sentence comprehension and production; a disorder in processing verbs therefore has a great effect on linguistic processing and, very importantly, on communicative ability. It seems that a gap exists between neurolinguistic findings and clinical application of this knowledge.
The test battery for verb and sentence processing developed uses linguistic insights and is theoretically motivated; it is regarded as suitable for different types of aphasie patients and it is clinically relevant. The second part of the study analyses the first two case studies of the application of the VAST test to Dutch and English patients. Esther Ruigendijk Utrecht University focuses on Case assignment as an explanation f or determiner omission in German agrammatic speech.
She offers a linguistic, psycholinguistic, and aphasiological background to agrammatic aphasics. The basic problem is the production of finite verbs; poor determiner and pronoun production can then be considered a side effect. The distinction between functional categories is at the heart of present-day grammatical theory, but plays an equally central role in, among other topics, theories on language acquisition and aphasia.
In the course of time, various diagnostic criteria have been identified which distinguish one class from another: e. Her results on German determiner production and case assignment demonstrate that once the case-assigning verb is realised, the production of determiners is possible in agrammatic aphasics. This means that determiner production as such is not impaired, but rather that the problems with determiners are closely related to those of the production of verbs.
When no case-assigning verb is realised, no determiners can be produced. Incorrect or incomplete retrieval of the lemma information of the verb can account for case substitution errors that are made with object noun phrases. This has interesting implications for the treatment of agrammatic patients. Training in the production of isolated determiner phrases cannot be successful, since these are related to verbs. The issue addressed is whether morphological regularity in languages allows the dissociation of the effects of morphological regularity from those of form and semantic similarity.
First, the study of morphologically regular and irregular verbs in Greek allows for the addressing of the issue of morphological regularity per se, independently of form and semantic considerations. Second, it clarifies whether the difficulties that Greek-speaking aphasies have with the past tense are due to the different morphological operations postulated, or whether they reflect task-specific deficits related to the lexical access procedures involved in each task. There is unity, however, in the great effort made to provide some key aspects of the framework adopted and to discuss general problems posed by it.
The theoretical arguments advanced and the empirical evidence proffered are bound to offer deeper insights into the factors that shape the nature of language. At the same time, it can be said that clinical research has offered new perspectives on investigative techniques and suggestions as to how to revise theoretical and methodological tools. William Diver 1. Introduction The theory of Phonology as Human Behavior PHB was developed by William Diver in an analysis of the non-random distribution of certain classes of initial consonant clusters in English, which he later expanded to explain the non-random combinations of vowels and consonants in English Diver and in language in general Diver The latter, fundamental dichotomy between the abstract code and its realization, based on a classification of sounds according to their articulatory and acoustic features, was further developed by the functional, communication-oriented Prague school phonology developed by Nikolai Trubetzkoy  and Roman Jakobson , The principle of minimal effort postulated by Martinet implies that speakers strive for a minimal number of phonemes which require the least amount of effort to be produced and combined together in what Sampson , reviewed in Tobin , referred to as a "therapeutic view of sound change.
Diver maintains that there is a constant struggle between our need for maximum communication and our desire for minimum effort. That is, Diver extends and enhances Martinet's more strictly diachronic view of the human factor so that it can become a means of explaining the non-random distribution of phonemes in language in coordination with the needs of communication as originally established by Saussure and the Prague school discussed in Liberman ; Tobin a-c, a, The problem is to discover what motivates people to produce particular sound waves on a particular occasion.
The way this works out, in analytic practice, is that the essential motivation is communication, and that the details of how communication is effected are controlled by considerations of the available human physiology, by principles of acoustics, and by normal characteristics of human behavior; that is, by the other orientations.
Although PHB has maintained the basic Saussurian and Praguian notions of phonemes, distinctive features, and morphemes, etc. The other orientations constantly feed in to the process of reaching the primary goal, particularly in regard to why the units are made use of in the way they are. As analysis proceeded in our work , the hypotheses sorted themselves into three distinct groups, distinct in the way in which they are related to the process of communication: hypotheses about phonological units, about grammatical units, and about lexical units.
Diver , thus has postulated different kinds of distinctive features in phonology, which are more directly related to human physiology, perception, cognition, and behavior. Based on these new distinctive features, it is possible to classify different sets of phonemes according to the degree of difficulty required to learn, perceive, and produce them. Diver has also introduced the notion of the quantitative analysis of favored and disfavored distributions of phonemes, which can be directly related to their degree of difficulty.
These distributional preferences or 'preferred combinations' are further paralleled by similar ones observed in human behavior requiring the control of fine motor movements in extralinguistic contexts e. In practice, Diver's theoretical perspective presents the phonological units of language in a unique way based on the interaction between the communication factor, which enables him to tackle the following questions: why are there certain kinds of sounds in human language and why do these sounds combine in a non-random way to form larger units in a similar way across languages?
The first requirement is that audible sound be produced, if the communication is to be transferred from one person to another; clearly audible sound if the communication is to take place over any distance. The second, that a fairly extensive inventory of distinct sounds be built up, if the resources of human communication are to exceed those of animal cries. There are two important considerations here: first, given the variety of the ways in which sounds could be produced by the vocal apparatus, why is there so much agreement in general across languages, in the midst of a great deal of differences in matters of detail?
These consonants then 'flank' the 'keystone' vowels to form morphemes of the cvc variety. The possible order of phonological development in language is presented and explained by Diver based on the interaction of the communication factor and the human factor as follows: For the 'primary' units we thus get a picture of an imagined sequence of development ordered in terms of the need for precision of control. Those that can be characterized as being more difficult to control e. It is rare indeed for a 'word' to be constructed without one of the clearly audible members as keystone.
Further, the extent to which a number of flanking members are combined in the formation of a single morpheme is very sharply restricted. The following procedures have been used. A collection is made of all 'words' constructed with a single keystone [vowel], within which there is no morphemic boundary.
Thus cat would be counted, but not cats. The rationale is that the combination t-s here is determined by something other than purely phonological considerations. Despite the fact that consonants are more difficult to produce than vowels, there are more consonant than vowel phonemes in languages because consonants provide clearer communicative distinctions. Three different kinds of collection will be noted here.
In my own research, the collection consisted of all words in my active vocabulary: that is, in the active vocabulary of a literate, well-educated speaker. It is recognized that the resulting list might not be exactly the same as that of another person of a similar education, and that there might well be quite a number of words "in the dictionary" that would not be included.
In This Article
Here, informants were used, essentially illiterate persons without access to radio or television. The author is herself a native of Gaya, and checked for the occurrence of every possible phonological combination. A third alternative was a study by Joseph Davis Davis . This study based the count on essentially all the entries in a moderately sized dictionary of Standard Italian.
In spite of the differences in the inventory of phonological units between English, Urdu and Italian and the differences in methods of collection, the general principles that have been sketched above were found to be quite uniform in their manifestation. It was thus possible to check the interrelations among orientations, hypotheses, and observations, and to demonstrate that there is a relationship of motivation flowing from orientation to observation. The developmental and clinical studies discussed here were based on recordings of spontaneous speech as well clinical exercises.
For similar methodological reasons lexical analyses from standard dictionaries were performed by Tobin b,c for close to 3, triconsonantal ccc roots in Hebrew. Specific text or discourse analyses testing the theory on various texts, including a poetic text containing many neologisms, appear in Tobin a: ch.
In all cases, regardless of the methodology employed in the collection of the data, the principles established by the theory were supported. Therefore the following conclusions may be drawn for synchronic and diachronic phonological analyses: Conclusion 1: Language in general - and phonology in particular - can be seen as a synergetic mini-max struggle: the desire to create maximum communication with minimal effort Tobin a: ch. Greater effort will be exerted in order to achieve more efficient or better communication through clinical intervention Tobin , a,b, The following include most of the major and minor natural phonological processes found in functional language acquisition adapted from Grunwell ; Ingram , accompanied by an explanation derived from the principles obtained from PHB.
We also found that newly acquired sounds were often reduplicated as a means of practice or of hypercorrection in the clinical situation. This may also be related to the fact that vowels are shorter before voiceless rather than voiced consonants. Most of the processes affecting the turbulence and airflow of phonemes of constriction manner of articulation listed above confirm the following factors obtained from PHB: among constrictions, maximal constriction is favored and among apertures, maximal aperture is favored.
It should be clear from the above examples that more than one process can appear in the same word and that most, if not all, of these functional processes can be directly related to the principles obtained from PHB. It should also be noted that there is a chronology of natural processes which determines and separates normal processes from deviant functional or organic ones.
She analyzed the speech of Elita , the daughter of deaf, signing parents who are Russian immigrants with a limited knowledge of Hebrew, whose speech is extremely difficult to understand. Samet then applied PHB to explain the processes. All of these processes, except for l e initial consonant deletion, clearly conform to the principles of phonology as human behavior. In the case of Elita, we have a situation where the number and the degree of functional processes require clinical intervention.
If deviations from these chronological values and norms are discovered in a child's speech, that child may be sent for speech therapy. Children who are labeled as having functional disorders in their speech will usually reach the clinic when: i ii iii early processes continue past their normal period; early processes coexist with later errors and processes; normal functional processes are accompanied by idiosyncratic processes such as backing, gliding of fricatives, affrication.
In other words, the child will usually only exert effort in order to enhance communication. Summary and conclusions We can now summarize the major principles of PHB for phonological analysis and its applications for developmental and clinical phonology: 1 We begin with the phonetic observations, both articulatory and acoustic, within phonemes which are abstract and therefore 'unobservable' units child language inventory and clinical intake. Gestures enhancing communicative distinctiveness are favored, while articulatorily more difficult gestures are disfavored.
There is a conflict between the communication and the human factors in language users' search for maximum communication with minimal effort both in the diachronic development and the synchronic state of a language. This conflict is even more keenly felt in language acquistion, where functional errors and processes may be observed, and even more so in the clinic, where developmental and pathological errors and processes are apparent. Azim, Abdul. Davis, Joseph. Diver, William. Psycholinguistic Research: Implications and applications, ed.
Hillsdale, N. Meaning as Explanation: Advances in linguistic sign theory ed. Dressler, Wolfgang U. Leitmotifs in Natural Phonology. Fatihi, A. Economy of Articulation in Mewati Phonology. Flores, Nydia. Grunwell, Pamela. Clinical Phonology. London: Croom-Helm. Hameed, Shahana. Ingram, David. Phonological Disability in Children.
London: Whurr. Jabeen, Shazi Shah. Jakobson, Roman. The Hague: Mouton. Selected Writings I: Phonological studies. Liberman, Anatoly. The Legacy of Ghengis Khan by N. Trubetzkoy, ed. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications. Berne: A. Moore, Kate. Studies in Logopedics and Phonetics ed.
Leiwo, vol. II, Nordic Prosody VI ed. Advances in Clinical Phonetics ed. Nordic Prosody VII ed. Samet, Mirit. Schools of Linguistics. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Saussure, Ferdinand de. A Course in General Linguistics. Transi, by Wade Baskin. New York: Philosophical Library. Shaked, Galia. Early Phonological Development: Phonological processes in children years old. A Dissertation on Natural Phonology. New York: Garland.
Tobin, Yishai. Review of Sampson Lingua Tobin, Yishai ed. The Prague School and its Legacy. Tobin a. Semiotics and Linguistics. La Linguistique Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics Tobin, Yishai, ed. Phonology as Human Behavior: Theoretical implications and cognitive and clinical applications. The three faces of Ferdinand". Phonology as Human Behavior: Theoretical implications and clinical applications. Durham, N. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia Signal, Meaning and Message: Perspectives on sign-based linguistics ed. The Linguistic Review Proceedings of LP Item order and its variety and linguistic and phonetic consequences ed.
Kuala Lampur, 18 April Trubetzkoy, Nikolai S. Principles of Phonology. Transl, by Christine A. The Legacy of Ghengis Khan. Introduction Where phonological theory has been applied to clinical data, the concept of markedness has often played a significant role Blumstein For this study, we have compared the literal paraphasias of fluent and nonfluent aphasic speakers on a repetition task, aimed at determining the influence of syllable structure on error patterns. An important section of this paper is devoted to possible and, in our view, necessary, adaptations to mainstream Optimality Theory, for it to correspond more closely to a plausible psycholinguistic model of speech processing and deal with aphasie data such as presented here.
The first section discusses phonological markedness, the background to this concept, and its application to the study of aphasia in general. The difference between fluent and non-fluent aphasia is explained and argued for in the second section. According to Jakobson , the sound system of a language starts off with the sharpest contrast between sounds, i. In other words, vowels are as extremely vowel-like as possible, and consonants are as extremely consonant-like as possible.
After this first acquired contrast, the next is that between oral consonants and nasal consonants. This order of acquisition is argued to be based on ease of articulation. Blumstein's starting hypothesis was very Jakobsonian, in that she appears to have expected to find, and indeed did find, similar effects of the relative phonological markedness of segments in patients with different types of aphasic syndromes, as, "regardless of the area of brain damage, the more 1 Here we use the term structure to imply all phonological particles of analysis, i.
Blumstein studied the error patterns in the speech of patients with Broca's aphasia, conduction aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia. In a nutshell, the phonological errors of Broca's aphasics are claimed to result from the inability to translate a correct phonological speech plan into its correct phonetic counterpart and articulation. Conduction aphasics, in a very broad definition, mainly have postlexical problems with the sequencing of correctly retrieved sounds and sound patterns from the lexicon.
Wernicke's aphasies' phonological problems are caused by deficient retrieval from the lexicon, or even by distorted lexical representations themselves. These three groups all made more errors on segments that had been classified as more marked beforehand. In segment substitutions, marked segments were generally replaced by less marked segments. Besides segment type, studies by Nespoulous et al. Such results of studies into markedness and aphasia lead to hypotheses about the nature of markedness.
If aphasie deficits exist at different levels of language processing and markedness effects can be related to specific aphasie syndromes and therefore to specific levels of processing, deepens our knowledge about the origin of markedness effects. One problem, of course, lies in the fact that aphasie syndromes are far from 'specific' e. Also, as noted by Nespoulous et al. Fluent vs non-fluent aphasia and levels of processing A broader classification of patients displaying phonological impairment than that described above into Broca's, conduction, and Wernicke's aphasies is through a division between fluent and non-fluent aphasia.
In the absence of extralinguistic factors, such as dysarthria, non-fluent patients are generally claimed to suffer from difficulty in the timing and coordination of articulatory movements in speech Blumstein et al. This level is quite peripheral to the language processing system, but it may still be considered linguistic and it is not so peripheral that symptoms of a deficit at this level can be ascribed merely to inadequate bucco-facial muscle strength.
Articulatory muscles themselves are intact and all movements necessary for speech production can be correctly executed, but the problem lies in the adequate coordination of and voluntary control over the articulators. Such marginally different interpretations are difficult to disentangle Code ; Croot et al. Non-fluent aphasics are mostly patients that would be classically diagnosed as suffering from Broca's aphasia with apraxia of speech. What these disorders have in common is that they yield incorrect phonological plans. We studied the effects of positional syllable-internal markedness on the deletion patterns of segments in the paraphasias produced by fluent and non-fluent aphasies on a repetition task.
The syllable template model itself was based on language typology frequency of occurrence of structures and data from child language acquisition order of acquisition and tendencies within error patterns. The items in the task were all Dutch monosyllables, with different syllable structures, which, for analysis, were mapped onto the discussed syllable template. In this particular model, the onset and coda satellites osat and csat can only be filled with glides, liquids or nasals i.
The pre-margin and appendix positions can be considered extrasyllabic: they violat binary branching and their 'behavior' is exceptional in other ways as well cf. Harris Positions dependent on other positions are only filled if the position they are dependent on is filled. For example, the pre-margin and the onset satellite are dependent on the onset core ons. In this model, everything depends on the peak. The position for this peak the vowel is left out in these graphs, as the comparison was only between consonant positions. Vowels were hardly ever deleted in the monosyllabic repetition items.
The illustrative word used here is sprints, which did not actually occur in the item list itself, because it is morphologically complex in Dutch. The fluent patients also deleted significantly more segments in appendix positions than in coda satellite positions. Nevertheless, what remains is the fact that the proportions of deletions in coda and coda satellite positions differ less for fluent aphasics than for nonfluent aphasies, whereas there is no particular difference in onsets.
The Coda observation In this section, the relevant data and the methods of collecting them are discussed. For this renewed visit to the repetition study, four more non-fluent patients were tested. The other patients and their data were taken from the previous, study. The non-fluent patients had been diagnosed by their speech therapists as suffering from apraxia of speech, without dysarthria. This diagnosis was confirmed by the examiner.
The fluent aphasies did not suffer from apraxia of speech. All were native speakers of Dutch and more than 3 months aphasie due to a single left-hemispheric stroke. The repetition task consisted of Dutch monosyllabic words, of which 41 were analysed for the present study. These were the items with complex 3 The relatively high proportion of deletions in pre-margin position by non-fluent aphasies is explained by the fact that apraxics generally have problems with initiating movement Code Non-fluent patients with apraxia of speech will have difficulty with the beginning of words, independently of syllable position cf.
All syllable onsets in the monosyllabic items in the test obviously coincided with word onsets. Deletions were scored per segment position within the analysed onsets and codas. In onsets the opposition was between the onset core and the onset satellite, or, in this case, the first and the second position, respectively. As an example, the word print is orthographically given below, with the appropriate position labels: p r i onset core onset sat. For this reason, we only took into account deletions of these positions, as they are the only true quantitative simplifications of phonological structure, as opposed to segment substitutions.
Note that not all patients produced 41 valid responses to the 41 items under scrutiny, as target items yielding neologisms or no-responses were not included in the analysis. All in all, the literal paraphasias of fluent aphasic patients and non-fluent aphasic patients were analysed for the proportions of deletions per syllable position, in onsets and codas. Results are summarized in Table 1 and in Figure 2. N is the total number of occurrences of relevant onset or coda clusters for this group of patients.
The graphs in Figure 2 show the mean number of deletions, proportionate to the number of occurrences of the relevant position in the target list, for each group of patients. For our account of these data, we return to the notion of markedness. According to this hierarchy of segmental markedness, consonants are less marked if they are less sonorant. Segmental markedness applies non-contextually; it does not take into account the position of a segment within a syllable. This markedness hierarchy can account for the error pattern of non-fluent patients, but not for the coda observation in fluent patients' errors.
If we do look at segments in the context of prosodie structure, a different picture emerges. Clements argued that the preferred sonority slope of syllables has a steep rise in sonority pre-vocalically and a slow decline in sonority postvocalically. Syllables with sonorant codas are more frequent than syllables with non-sonorant codas. This Sonority Cycle Clements allows us to formulate a second markedness hierarchy, which we will call syllable markedness, according to which onsets want to be non-sonorant and codas want to be sonorant.
The Sonority Cycle was indeed the object of investigation of Christman , who showed that neologisms produced by fluent patients conform to this principle of a steep rise and a minimal decline of sonority in syllables, as formulated by Clements The Italian mother tongue of their patient, however, has so many restrictions on possible codas, that it does not allow for complex coda analysis in the way that Dutch or English might.
It is this combination of the two types of markedness, or rather the crucial conflict between them, that may account for the error pattern of fluent aphasics. Relating the two types of markedness to the results obtained in this study, our claim is that for non-fluent aphasic patients, who have a deficit at a cognitive phonetic level of speech production, segmental markedness is dominant. Irrespective of syllable position, these patients 'prefer' to delete sonorant consonants and to end up with non-sonorant consonants.
Fluent aphasie patients, who have a deficit at or before the level of phonological encoding, show the influence of both segmental markedness and syllable markedness. For codas, this means that there is a conflict which results in a draw, hence the almost equal distribution of deletions of sonorant and nonsonorant consonants in this syllable constituent.
The full analysis of the presented data is therefore as follows: non-fluent aphasies have a deficit at a phonetic level of processing. At this level, where articulatory planning takes place, the markedness of individual segments, or feature combinations, is still an influential factor. The impairment allows this type of markedness to become dominant and this means that when clusters of consonants are reduced, the non-sonorant, segmentally least marked consonant will come out as the winner, irrespective of its position within a syllable.
Before this phonetic level of processing, constraints on sonority sequencing, i. At the affected level s of processing in fluent aphasies, the conflict between segmental markedness constraints and syllable markedness constraints emerges, as structure-preserving constraints lose control over the output of the speech production process. This yields a pattern of errors in which onsets are relatively systematically reduced to non-sonorant segments, as both types of markedness reinforce each other in onsets, while codas are reduced on a seemingly random basis to either sonorant or nonsonorant segments, as the constraints are in direct conflict over what is a preferred coda.
Its main appeal lies in two characteristics: the focus on well-formedness of the output, as opposed to a focus on rules that seem to exist for their own sake, and the softness of constraints, where a constraint can be violated in order to satisfy something more important. A grammar is formed by the language-specific ranking of these violable, universal constraints. These output candidates are compared, on the basis of the input form and the ranked constraints.
The output candidate that has the least important constraint violations wins and, consequently, is the optimal output. There are two types of faithfulness constraints. Parse or Max constraints say that material in the input should also be present in the output. Fill or Dep constraints say that material in the output should also be present in the input, thus blocking insertion.
If we consider, then, the focus on derivations and cyclicity of processes in previous decades e. Such criticism has led to a number of adaptations to the original theory, all aimed at giving satisfactory descriptions of morphophonological processes in which the output form seems to be opaque, and certain constraints appear to 34 DIRK-BART DEN OUDEN have been applied only to specific substrings of the eventual output form a phonological word, mostly cf.
Beside the discussion over single or multiple levels of evaluation in the formal theory, stands a large body of evidence for multiple levels of processing, from the fields of psycholinguistics and neurolinguistics, in which the issue is not under debate see Levelt , among many others. Lesion studies going back to the 19th century have shown that different parts of the brain perform different functions for an overview, see Whitaker The domain of phonological processing itself has also been dissected cf.
This simply means that they will not be able to produce or parse the adult output forms of their mother tongue and that they will mainly show effects of markedness during the first stages of acquisition. It is not the case that children will reset their constraint rankings on the basis of one single piece of positive evidence. Language acquisition, though fast, does not occur in one day, and children hear a lot of adult output forms on the basis of which they eventually set their grammar and optimize their lexicon.
Also, during this process, there is much variation in their own output. Boersma therefore argues that this should be represented by variable distances between different constraints, which may at times even overlap. Thus, every piece of positive evidence an adult output form will cause a constraint to change position within the ranking, but this does not necessarily mean that it will immediately outrank another constraint; it may simply move closer.
Compared to 'normal' speakers, the aphasic speaker is less faithful to the input, the input here being the lexicon or, for example, utterances to be repeated, whether real words or non-words. Any systematic way of constricting the input or the output candidates would somehow have to be by incorporating extra markedness constrictions on these domains. This would come down to an extratheoretical add-on for which there is no evidence or argument in nonpathological natural language.
Caramazza Aphasie data are never homogeneous. There is much noise and variabity, which is precisely why statistics are used to determine whether some structures are significantly used more often than others. Variation, as we have seen above, can be represented by 'switching' of adjacent constraints. The candidates that we will consider in Table 2 are the most relevant to our data and to our example input form print, and we should be able to distinguish between them and choose the correct optimal output form with the constraints given above.
Other possible candidates are dealt with by other constraints, but this is outside the scope of this paper. The data discussed all concern cluster reduction. This ranking applies to both groups of patients, fluent and non-fluent. The top left cell shows the input. The output candidates are given below that, in the first column.
Constraint names are given in the top row, ordered by prominence in the hierarchy from left to right. A crucial violation of a constraint, meaning that the candidate in question is no longer relevant for lower-ranked constraints, as others will always be more optimal, is marked with an exclamation mark!
We have argued that this is because of a competition between a constraint on the preferred sonority value of the syllable constituent coda and a segmental markedness constraint that disallows sonorant consonants. The tableau for non-fluent aphasics shows dominance of segmental markedness and either the absence, or the non-competitively low ranking of the constraint s representing the Sonority Cycle. It will not come as a surprise to the reader that we argue that there is a relation between the different levels of processing and the different tableaux.
This relation will be specified further below. The adherence to mother tongue phonotactics points towards a lowering of faithfulness constraints only. However, the variation found in the patterns of paraphasias belonging to different types of aphasia, such as observed in this study and contra Blumstein's hypothesis, acts as an argument against the mere lowering of faithfulness constraints in the representation of aphasia. To represent different aphasic symptoms only through different degrees of faithfulness lowering comes down to saying that aphasic 'syndromes', or rather, clusters of symptoms, only differ with respect to the degree of seriousness of impairment.
For these reasons, rather than claiming that the constraints H O N S and HCOD are ranked non-competitively low at the level of impairment of nonfluent aphasies, we argue that they are non-existent at this level. This means, then, that our analysis allows for different levels of evaluation of constraints, where not all constraints are active i. In psycholinguistic modeling, it is common practice to minimize the number of levels, modules or stages of processing to those necessary for an accurate representation of empirical findings. Another principle he formulates to restrict the power of his framework is that of Reranking Minimalism: "[the] number of rerankings is minimal [ This is because we have chosen to follow the intuitive notion that the underlying cause of cluster reduction in the first place is the same for fluent and nonfluent aphasics, namely that syllable constituents prefer to be simple cf.
If, however, the formulation of the constraint is indeed similar to 'consonants do not want to be adjacent to consonants', the prediction is that there should be no difference between proportions of reductions within syllable constituents and across syllable constituents. This hypothesis needs to be tested. This accounts for the different types of aphasia that are distinguished clinically. Also, aphasia is characterized by unstable ranking of close adjacent markedness constraints, which accounts for the high degree of variation found in aphasie error patterns.
Along the lines of Boersma , this could be conceived of as a widening of the moving space of constraints from their relatively fixed place in the hierarchy, which increases the opportunity for overlap of constraints. It is our position that language breakdown in the form of aphasia provides a window on the workings of the language system. Linguistic theories should be able to deal with the view thus offered. Working Memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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